Wednesday, December 16, 2015

ทฤษฎีแรงจูงใจว่าด้วย CANE


- สมรรถภาพแห่งตน X ผลกระทบทางอารมณ์ - (อารมณ์ที่ทำให้พฤติกรรมเบี่ยงเบน)X คุณค่าของงาน
  ที่ทำ(ความสำคัญของผลประโยชน์) _____________ความผูกพันตามเป้าหมาย
        (ความสำคัญของการใช้ประโยชน์)                    (ทางเลือก,การยืนหยัด)

The CANE Model
Ten predictor variables identified by the CANE Model guided the investigation of the hospitality industry. These included: self-efficacy, agency, emotion, mood, importance, interest, utility, choice, persistence, and effort.
Self-Efficacy The belief that one can organize and execute courses of action to obtain desired goals (Bandura, 1997). Can I Do This?
Do I Have What It Takes?
Agency The belief that you will be supported in doing a task or allowed to perform the task in accordance with your goals. Will I Be Permitted To Do This and Be Supported?
Can I Do This Under These Circumstances/Conditions?
Emotion Negative emotions produce avoidance behaviors (tardiness, inattentiveness, job abandonment); positive emotions energize (choosing a task, staying longer on a task, etc.) How Do I Feel About This Task Or Job?
Mood Moods bias people’s thoughts, not their actions. How Am I Feeling In General?
Importance People tend to commit to tasks when they identify with the task. Is This Task “Me”?
Interest People can commit themselves to tasks even when the only thing they get out of it is pleasure from doing the task. Do I Like This?
Utility Willingness to perform A to secure B. Task utility is often the most powerful motivator. If the answer to the ques-tion at the right is “nothing,” people are unlikely to commit to the task. What’s In It For Me?
Choice Buy-in or the first step. This is that actual goal that people have selected; it differs from intention in that it involves some sort of action or response and not mere thought or words (Kuhl, 1986). Do I Agree With This?
Persistence Continued choice in the face of obsta-cles. When people persist, they gen-erally succeed. Can I Continue To Do This?
Effort An energy-based behavior involving actual thinking rather than rote per-formance. When people exert effort, they increase the likelihood of suc-ceeding in a task. Is It Worth The Effort?

Implications for Employers

Simply put, the study demonstrates that certain behaviors have various impacts on turnover in various ways, and these differences suggest strategies employers might use to reduce turnover. These include:
  • Turnover is less when employees have a high level of value for their work. These employees persist more than colleagues who report low levels of value. Employers can help employees value their work through consistent praise, recognition, and special incentives.
  • Turnover is less at work sites where employees feel supported by the organization. Organizations can increase the level of support their employees feel by listening more, understanding employee issues, and taking action accordingly.
  • Employees who feel better about their jobs persist more, exert more effort, and are less likely to leave.
  • Older employees tend to be more motivated, persistent, exert a greater effort, and are less likely to leave in the face of difficulties.
  • Salaried employees are more motivated than hourly employees.
  • Women are more likely to say their work is more interesting, more important, and more useful; however, turnover for women is higher than men.
  • When employees feel they cannot perform certain tasks, managers should reduce the size of complexity of the task into smaller “chunks.” This helps the employee to build self-efficacy.
  • Employees who perceive their work conditions to be unfair and/or unreliable need evidence that the system is there to help them be effective. If negative perceptions are cor rect, management should rectify them.
Conclusion: When tasks are being avoided or devalued, a carefully targeted incentive system can solve the problem in both the short- and long-terms.

About the Researchers

This summary of a SITE study is an edited version of a full report by the same name written by Steven J. Condly, Ph.D., Educational Studies Dept., College of Education, University of Central Florida, and Robin DiPietro, Ph.D., Rosen School of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida.